Cricket was invented in England, with the earliest documented reference to the game way back in 1597, having developed as a kids’ bat-and-ball game during medieval times.
Cricket is a popular sport played between two teams with each team consisting of 11 players. It is played with a bat and a ball on a large oval-shaped field.
In a cricket match, there are 11 players who play for each team.
An over is when six legal deliveries are bowled by the bowler.
A cricket pitch is 22 yards long and is the strip of grass in the centre of the field with the stumps at either end.
A wicket in cricket is a batsman getting out. Confusingly, though, the stumps can also be referred to as the wickets.
The score in cricket works by displaying how many runs a team has scored and how many wickets they have lost to get them, generally in the format of runs-wickets, e.g. a score of 100-3 would tell you a team has 100 runs but has lost 3 wickets. At the end of the game, the team that has the most runs is the winner, with each team only able to lose a maximum of 10 wickets.
There in total 10 ways to get out in cricket. These are: bowled, caught, lbw (leg before wicket), run out, stumped, timed out, double hit, retired out, obstructing the field and hit (own) wicket. Up until 2017, there was an 11th way to get out – ‘handled the ball’ – but this is now covered in obstructing the field.
Only 12 countries play test cricket and they are: England, India, Australia, Pakistan, South Africa, New Zealand, West Indies, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Zimbabwe, Ireland and Afghanistan. In addition to test nations, a further 96 countries play international cricket as ICC ‘associate members’, including Netherlands, Scotland, UAE, Namibia, Nepal, USA, Oman, Papua New Guinea, Hong Kong and many others. International cricket is dominated by the test nations – all of whom are former members of the British Empire.
Test cricket is a form of first-class cricket played at international level between teams representing full member countries of the International Cricket Council. A Test match consists of four innings and is scheduled to last for up to five days.
Typically, there is no limit to the amount of overs in a test cricket match. Generally, though, test cricket games are a maximum of 5 days long with 90 overs a day.
A T20 cricket game lasts around three hours, with rules in place to ensure the teams get through the game in a timely fashion.
A century in cricket refers to a batsman scoring 100 or more runs individually in an innings.
Indian Premier League aka IPL is a domestic Twenty20 tournament in India which attracts the best players in the world and is watched by hundreds of millions.
The different formats of cricket are Test cricket, One Day Internationals (ODIs), and Twenty20 (T20) cricket.
In a cricket match, each team takes turns batting and fielding. The team batting tries to score runs by hitting the ball and running between the wickets, while the fielding team tries to dismiss the batsmen and limit the number of runs scored.
A hat-trick in cricket is when a bowler takes three wickets on consecutive deliveries in the same match.
The Duckworth-Lewis method is a mathematical formula used to calculate target scores in rain-affected limited-overs matches. It adjusts the target based on the number of overs lost due to rain.
Test cricket is the longest format of the game and is played over five days, while limited-overs cricket (ODIs and T20s) has a restricted number of overs per side and shorter match durations.
The ICC Cricket World Cup is an international cricket tournament held every four years. It features teams from different countries competing for the title of world champions in the ODI format.
Umpires in cricket are responsible for making decisions on the field, such as judging whether a batsman is out, signaling boundaries, and enforcing the laws of the game.
The Ashes is a Test cricket series played between England and Australia. It is one of the oldest and most prestigious cricket rivalries.
The toss in cricket determines which team will bat or bowl first. Winning the toss allows the captain to make a strategic decision based on pitch and weather conditions.
The captain in a cricket team is responsible for making crucial decisions on the field, such as setting fielding positions, making bowling changes, and leading the team both tactically and emotionally.
The wicketkeeper in cricket is responsible for standing behind the wickets, catching the ball when the batsman misses it, and attempting to stump the batsman if they leave their crease.
A no-ball is an illegal delivery in cricket. It can occur if the bowler oversteps the crease while delivering the ball, bowls it above the waist height, or has an incorrect bowling action.
The follow-on rule in Test cricket allows the team batting first to enforce the opposing team to bat again immediately if they have a lead of 200 runs or more after the first innings.
A powerplay is a designated period in limited-overs cricket where fielding restrictions are applied. During the powerplay, only a limited number of fielders are allowed outside the inner circle, providing an advantage to the batting team.
A super over is a tie-breaking method used when a limited-overs match ends in a tie. Each team gets to bat for one over, and the team that scores the most runs in that over wins the match.
A maiden over is an over bowled by a bowler in which no runs are scored by the batting team. It signifies a successful and economical over for the bowling team.
The third umpire is an off-field umpire who assists the on-field umpires in making decisions. They primarily review disputed or unclear decisions using TV replays and technology.
The Decision Review System is a technology-based system used to review on-field decisions. It allows teams to challenge the umpire’s decision by requesting a review for certain dismissals or calls.
A boundary in cricket refers to a shot hit by the batsman that reaches the edge of the field without bouncing. It can be worth four runs if it crosses the boundary rope on the ground or six runs if it goes over the boundary without touching the ground.
Cricket selectors are responsible for choosing the players who will represent a team at various levels. They assess player performances, consider team requirements, and make decisions regarding team composition.
Football, also known as soccer in some countries, is a popular sport played between two teams of 11 players each. The objective is to score goals by kicking a ball into the opponent’s net using any part of the body except the arms and hands.
A football team consists of 11 players, including one goalkeeper and ten outfield players.
The different positions in football include goalkeeper, defenders, midfielders, and forwards. Specific positions within these categories include center-backs, full-backs, defensive midfielders, attacking midfielders, wingers, strikers, etc.
A standard football match consists of two halves, each lasting 45 minutes, making a total playing time of 90 minutes. However, there may be additional time added for stoppages and injuries.
The objective of a football match is for a team to score more goals than their opponent. The team with the higher number of goals at the end of the match wins.
Goals in football are scored when the ball completely crosses the goal line between the goalposts and beneath the crossbar. The team that scores more goals during the match wins.
Offside in football is a rule that prevents an attacking player from being nearer to the opponent’s goal line than both the ball and the second-to-last defender when the ball is played to them.
A penalty kick is a direct free kick awarded to the attacking team when a defending player commits a major foul within their own penalty area. It allows the attacking team to take a shot at the goal from the penalty spot, with only the goalkeeper defending it.
A yellow card is a cautionary disciplinary action shown by the referee to a player who commits a significant offense or misconduct. It serves as a warning, and if a player receives two yellow cards in the same match, they are shown a red card and sent off.
A red card is a disciplinary action shown by the referee to a player for a serious offense or misconduct. When a player receives a red card, they are immediately sent off the field, and their team must continue the match with one fewer player.
The goalkeeper, also known as the goalie, is the player positioned in front of the goal. Their primary role is to prevent the opposing team from scoring goals by using their hands and body to block shots and control the penalty area.
Some of the major football leagues in the world include the English Premier League, Spanish La Liga, German Bundesliga, Italian Serie A, and French Ligue 1. These leagues feature top clubs and attract a global following.
The FIFA World Cup is an international football tournament held every four years. It features national teams from around the world competing for the title of world champions.
The UEFA Champions League is an annual club football competition organized by the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA). It involves top clubs from European leagues competing for the prestigious title.
Club football refers to matches played between teams representing clubs or organizations, while international football involves matches played between national teams representing their respective countries.
A football manager, also known as a coach, is responsible for overseeing the team’s training, tactics, player selection, and overall strategy. They play a crucial role in guiding and motivating the team to achieve success.
Extra time is an additional period played at the end of a match when the scores are tied after the regular playing time. It usually consists of two halves of 15 minutes each and is played to determine a winner in knockout matches.
A free kick is awarded to a team when the opposing team commits a foul or handball. The team taking the free kick can either pass or shoot the ball without interference from opponents, depending on the location of the foul.
A corner kick is awarded to the attacking team when the ball goes out of play over the defending team’s goal line, having been last touched by a defending player. The attacking team takes the corner kick from the corner arc, aiming to score a goal.
The referee is responsible for enforcing the laws of the game, making decisions, and ensuring fair play during a football match. They have the authority to issue cards, award free kicks, penalties, and make crucial judgments on various situations.
The Golden Boot award, also known as the Golden Shoe, is given to the top goal scorer in a specific tournament or league. It recognizes the player who has scored the most goals during that particular competition.
The Ballon d’Or is an annual football award presented by France Football. It is given to the best male football player in the world, as voted on by journalists, national team coaches, and captains.
The Video Assistant Referee (VAR) system is a technology-based system used in football to review and assist on-field decisions made by the referee. It helps in cases of potential goals, penalty decisions, red card incidents, and mistaken identity.
Badminton is a racquet sport played between two players (singles) or two teams of two players each (doubles). The players use racquets to hit a shuttlecock over a net and aim to score points by making the shuttlecock land in the opponent’s court.
A badminton match can be played as singles (one player on each side) or doubles (two players on each side), making a total of either two or four players.
The objective of a badminton match is to score points by hitting the shuttlecock over the net and making it land within the boundaries of the opponent’s court. The aim is to make the shuttlecock difficult for the opponent to return.
A badminton court is rectangular and measures 13.4 meters in length and 6.1 meters in width for singles matches. For doubles matches, the width is increased to 6.7 meters.
The basic equipment required to play badminton includes racquets and shuttlecocks. Players also typically wear appropriate sports attire and non-marking indoor court shoes.
A badminton match is typically played as the best of three games. Each game is played to 21 points, and the player/team that reaches 21 points first with a two-point lead wins the game. If the score reaches 20-20, the game continues until a two-point lead is achieved (up to 30 points).
The shuttlecock, also known as a birdie, is a conical-shaped object with feathers or a plastic skirt attached. It is hit back and forth over the net and serves as the object that players must make contact with to score points.
A let is called when the rally needs to be replayed due to various reasons, such as interference from outside the court, equipment failure, or if the server’s serve is deemed faulty.
A fault in badminton is a violation of the rules that results in the loss of a point. Common faults include hitting the shuttlecock outside the boundaries, touching the net with the racquet, or obstructing the opponent’s shot.
A drop shot in badminton is a shot played with a gentle touch, causing the shuttlecock to fall just over the net and close to the opponent’s side, making it difficult for them to reach and return the shot.
A smash is a powerful attacking shot in badminton. It is executed by hitting the shuttlecock forcefully from a high position, aiming to send it steeply downwards and beyond the opponent’s reach.
The service is the starting shot of each rally in badminton. It must be hit diagonally to the opponent’s service court, and the server’s feet should remain within the service area until the serve is made.
A rally in badminton refers to the period of play where the shuttlecock is hit back and forth between the players or teams. The rally continues until the shuttlecock hits the ground, goes out of bounds, or a fault is committed.
The net in badminton is positioned across the middle of the court and separates the playing areas of the two opposing players or teams. Its purpose is to create a physical barrier that the shuttlecock must pass over during the game.
A let is called when a rally needs to be replayed due to external interferences or unforeseen circumstances. On the other hand, a fault is a violation of the rules that results in the loss of a point for the player or team committing the fault.
Yes, the shuttlecock can touch the net during a rally and still be considered in play as long as it passes over to the opponent’s side. However, if the shuttlecock hits the net and fails to cross to the opponent’s side, it results in a fault.
The umpire in badminton is responsible for overseeing the match, ensuring that the rules are followed, making decisions on disputed situations, and keeping score. They also call out the score and make announcements during the game.
A drive shot in badminton is a fast and flat shot that travels parallel to the net. It is hit forcefully with minimal arc, aiming to pass the opponent quickly and maintain pressure in the rally.
A clear shot in badminton is a defensive shot played from the back of the court. It involves hitting the shuttlecock high and deep into the opponent’s court, forcing them to move backward and creating time for the player to regain a better position.
A let serve in badminton refers to a situation where the server’s serve hits the net but still lands within the opponent’s service court. In such cases, the serve is replayed without any penalty to the server.
In a singles match, each player competes individually against their opponent, while in a doubles match, two players on each team play together as a pair against the opposing pair. The court dimensions and strategies can vary between the two formats.
A backhand shot in badminton is when a player uses the backside of their racquet hand to hit the shuttlecock. It is commonly used for shots on the opposite side of the player’s body.
A forehand shot in badminton is when a player uses the front side of their racquet hand to hit the shuttlecock. It is the most common and dominant hand position for executing shots in the game.
The BWF is the international governing body for the sport of badminton. It regulates and organizes major badminton tournaments, establishes rules, and works to promote and develop the sport globally.
Tennis is a racquet sport played between two individuals (singles) or two teams of two individuals each (doubles). The players use racquets to hit a ball over a net and aim to score points by making the ball land within the opponent’s court while following specific rules.
A tennis match can be played as singles (one player on each side) or doubles (two players on each side), making a total of either two or four players.
The objective of a tennis match is to score points by hitting the ball over the net and into the opponent’s court in a way that makes it difficult for them to return. The aim is to win games, sets, and ultimately the match.
A tennis court is rectangular and measures 78 feet (23.77 meters) in length and 27 feet (8.23 meters) in width for singles matches. For doubles matches, the width is increased to 36 feet (10.97 meters).
The basic equipment required to play tennis includes tennis racquets and tennis balls. Players also typically wear appropriate tennis attire and proper tennis shoes for traction on the court.
A tennis match is typically played as the best of three or five sets, depending on the tournament or level of play. Each set is played to a certain number of games, and the player/team that wins the majority of sets wins the match.
The net in tennis is positioned across the middle of the court, dividing it into two equal halves. It acts as a physical barrier that the ball must pass over during play. Players must hit the ball above the net and land it within the boundaries of the opponent’s court.
A rally in tennis refers to the exchange of shots between players during a point. It begins with the serve and continues until the point is won by one of the players, either through an error by the opponent or a successful shot.
A game in tennis is the smallest unit of scoring. To win a game, a player must win at least four points and have a two-point advantage over the opponent. Games are then accumulated to win a set.
A set in tennis is a collection of games. To win a set, a player must win at least six games with a two-game advantage over the opponent. If the set reaches a score of 6-6, a tiebreaker is often played to determine the winner of the set.
A tiebreaker in tennis is a special game played when the score in a set reaches 6-6. It is played to determine the winner of the set. The tiebreaker typically involves players reaching seven points, with a two-point lead, or a specific number of points set by tournament rules.
A serve in tennis is the shot that starts a point. The server stands behind the baseline and hits the ball diagonally over the net into the opponent’s service box, aiming to initiate the rally.
A forehand shot in tennis is when a player uses the front side of their racquet hand to hit the ball. It is the most common and dominant hand position for executing shots in the game.
A backhand shot in tennis is when a player uses the backside of their racquet hand to hit the ball. It is commonly used for shots on the opposite side of the player’s body.
A volley in tennis is a shot where the player hits the ball in the air before it bounces on the court. It is often executed near the net and requires quick reflexes and precise hand-eye coordination.
An ace in tennis is a serve that is not touched or returned by the opponent and results in a point for the server. It is typically a powerful and well-placed serve that the opponent fails to reach.
The umpire in tennis is responsible for overseeing the match, ensuring that the rules are followed, making decisions on disputed situations, and keeping score. They also call out the score, announce faults, and handle player challenges.
The chair umpire in tennis sits elevated in a chair on one side of the court. They have the final authority in making decisions and judgments during a match. They oversee the conduct of the match, call the score, and make final decisions on disputed calls.
Clay courts are made of crushed brick, shale, or stone and provide a slower playing surface with higher bounce. Grass courts are made of natural grass and offer a fast playing surface with low bounce. Hard courts are made of asphalt or concrete and provide a medium-paced playing surface.
The referee in tennis is the highest authority in a tournament. They oversee all matches, ensure fair play, and make final decisions on matters such as weather conditions, player conduct, and schedule changes.
Ball persons, also known as ball kids, are responsible for retrieving balls that are out of play and providing them to the players during a match. They play a crucial role in maintaining the flow and pace of the game.
A passing shot in tennis is a shot hit by the receiver to get the ball past the opponent and win the point. It is typically executed when the opponent is at the net, and the receiver aims to hit the ball out of their reach and into the open court.
A slice shot in tennis is a shot hit with underspin, causing the ball to curve and stay low after bouncing. It can be used for defensive purposes, to change the pace of the game, or to create angles on the court.
A double fault in tennis occurs when the server fails to deliver a legal serve in both attempts, resulting in the loss of the point
Volleyball is a team sport played between two teams of six players each. The objective is to score points by hitting a ball over a net and making it land within the opponent’s court while preventing them from doing the same.
A volleyball team consists of six players on the court at a time, with additional players available as substitutes.
The objective of a volleyball match is to win sets by scoring points. A team scores a point by successfully hitting the ball over the net into the opponent’s court and making it land within the boundaries while following the rules.
The net in volleyball is positioned across the middle of the court and acts as a barrier. It divides the two teams’ playing areas and serves as a boundary that the ball must pass over during play.
A volleyball match is typically played as the best of five sets. Each set is played to 25 points, with a two-point advantage required to win the set. If a fifth set is necessary, it is played to 15 points.
The basic equipment required to play volleyball includes a volleyball, a net, and a properly marked court. Players also wear appropriate attire, including knee pads, to protect against injuries while diving or sliding.
A rally in volleyball refers to the continuous exchange of plays between the two teams. It starts with a serve and continues until the ball hits the ground or a fault is committed, resulting in a point for the opposing team.
A spike in volleyball, also known as an attack or a hit, is an offensive shot where a player forcefully hits the ball downward into the opponent’s court. It is often executed by jumping near the net and aiming to score a point by making the ball difficult to defend.
A block in volleyball is a defensive technique where a player tries to intercept the ball as it is being spiked by the opposing team. The goal is to stop the ball from crossing the net and direct it back into the opponent’s court, either for a point or to disrupt their attack.
A dig in volleyball is a defensive technique used to receive a spiked ball. It involves using the forearms or hands to control the ball and direct it to a teammate for a subsequent play. The dig is aimed at preventing the ball from hitting the ground and keeping the rally alive.
A serve in volleyball is the shot that initiates each rally. It is executed by a player standing behind the baseline and hitting the ball over the net into the opponent’s court, aiming to start the game and put the receiving team under pressure.
A libero in volleyball is a specialized defensive player who wears a different colored jersey from the rest of the team. The libero’s primary role is to excel in passing and defensive skills. They often replace a back-row player and are not counted as a regular substitution.
A side-out in volleyball occurs when the serving team fails to score a point, resulting in the serve being awarded to the opposing team. It often happens after a rally ends, and the receiving team successfully defends against the attacking team’s hit
The referee in volleyball is responsible for overseeing the match, ensuring that the rules are followed, making decisions on disputed situations, and keeping score. They also signal faults, violations, and handle player misconduct.
A side-out in volleyball refers to a situation where the receiving team successfully defends against the serving team’s attack and wins the right to serve. It typically occurs when the serving team makes an error or fails to score a point.
A rotation fault in volleyball occurs when the serving team fails to rotate players in the correct order. Each player must move to the next position in a clockwise direction, and a rotation fault is called if the order is not maintained.
A libero replacement in volleyball refers to the substitution of the libero player with another player on the team. This type of substitution can occur an unlimited number of times and is usually done for strategic purposes or to provide rest for the libero.
A joust in volleyball occurs when two opposing players at the net simultaneously contact the ball above the net. It creates a contest of strength and timing, with both players attempting to push the ball towards the opponent’s court.
The coach in volleyball is responsible for strategizing, planning practices, training players, making substitutions, and providing guidance and support to the team. They play a crucial role in developing skills, tactics, and team cohesion.
A libero control in volleyball refers to a specific action allowed only for the libero player. It allows the libero to use an open-hand technique to stop or redirect the ball within the team’s playing area, primarily for defensive purposes.
A quick set in volleyball is a fast-paced offensive play where the ball is set close to the net and the attacker quickly jumps and spikes the ball. It aims to catch the opposing team off guard and make it difficult for them to defend against the attack.
A pancake in volleyball is a defensive technique where a player extends their hand flat on the floor to prevent the ball from touching the ground. The player slides their hand underneath the ball, creating a pancake-like shape, to keep the ball in play.
A timeout in volleyball is a break in play called by a team to regroup, discuss tactics, and provide rest. Each team is typically allowed a certain number of timeouts per set or match, and they are often used to disrupt the opposing team’s momentum.
A libero serve in volleyball refers to a serve performed by the libero player. The libero can only serve in specific rotations and is often utilized for their defensive abilities rather than their serving skills.